Expectations for Training the Mentors: Insights from a Pre-Service Language Teacher Education Program
pp. 75-90 | Published Online: May 2023 | DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.122.5 (registering DOI)
Full text PDF | 39 | 27
Background/purpose – The significant role of mentor teachers during the practicum studies necessitates a training that specifically addresses mentoring expectations in the teaching context. Drawing on critical constructivist teacher education, this study aims at investigating the expectations of student teachers, mentor teachers and university supervisors from mentoring.
Materials/methods – The data were collected from 79 pre-service teachers, 37 mentor teachers and 6 university supervisors through the researcher-designed questionnaire and the in-depth semi-structured interviews.
Results – The analysis of the participants’ answers showed that all three groups chose giving feedback to student teachers and knowledge on mentoring duty as the most important two themes the mentor teachers should be trained for. In addition to those themes, observing student teachers was another prominent theme for the group of mentor teachers, whereas the group of student teachers underlined the theme of knowledge on practicum procedures as a concern to be addressed in mentor training program.
Conclusion – The results provided not only valuable data to inform an online mentor training program but also uncovered the concerns experienced by all three groups, informing necessary actions to be taken accordingly.
Keywords: mentoring, language teacher education, pre-service teacher education, student teachersReferences
Aderebigbe, S. A., Colucci-Gray, L. & Gray D. (2014). Mentoring as a collaborative learning journey for teachers and student teachers: A critical constructivist perspective, Teacher Education Advancement Network Journal, 6(3), 17-27.
Akcan, S. (2011). Analysis of teacher candidates’ learning experiences in an “English Teaching Methods” course. Education and Science, 36, 247-260.
Akcan, S., & Tatar, S. (2010). An investigation on the nature of feedback given to pre-service English teachers during their practice teaching experience. Teacher Development, 14(2), 153-172. https://doi.org/10.1080/13664530.2010.494495
Albakri, I. S. M. A., Ismail, N., Hartono, R., Tahir, M. H. M., Abdullah, M. S. H. B., Sarudin, A., & Zulkepli, N. (2021). Mentoring practise during practicum: The perspectives of Malaysian pre-service English language teachers. Studies in English Language and Education, 8(2), 642–655. doi:10.24815/siele.v8i2.19282
Ambrosetti, A., & Dekkers, J. (2010). The interconnectedness of the roles of mentors and mentees in pre-service teacher education mentoring relationships. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35(6), 42-55. 10.14221/ajte.2010v35n6.3
Bal-Gezegin, B., Balıkçı, G. & Gümüşok, F. (2019). Professional development of pre-service teachers in an English language teaching program. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching (IOJET), 6(3), 624-642.
Borg, S. (2009). Language teacher cognition. In A. Burns & J. C. Richards (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to second language teacher education (pp.163-171). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Bradbury, L. U. (2010). Educative mentoring: Promoting reform-based science teaching through mentoring relationships. Science Education, 94(6), 1049-1071. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20393
Bullough, R. V. (2012). Mentoring and new teacher induction in the United States: A review and analysis of current practices. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 20(1), 57-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611267.2012.645600
Bulunuz, N., Gürsoy, E., Kesner, J., Baltacı Göktalay Ş,, & Salihoğlu, U. M. (2014). The implementation and evaluation of a Clinical Supervision Model in teacher education in Turkey: Is it an effective method?, Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 14(5), 1823-1833.
Chaliès, S., Ria, L., Bertone, S., Trohel, J., & Durand, M. (2004). Interactions between preservice and cooperating teachers and knowledge construction during post-lesson interviews. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 765–781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2004.09.001
Clarke, A., Triggs, V., & Nielsen, W. (2013). Cooperating teacher participation in teacher education: A review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 20(10), 1-40. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654313499618
Darling-Hammond, L., & Baratz-Snowden, J. (2005). A good teacher in every classroom: Preparing the highly qualified teachers our children deserve. San Francisco, CA: Josey-Bass.
Delaney, Y.A. (2012). Research on mentoring language teachers: its role in language education. Foreign Language Annals, 45(1), 184-202. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2011.01185.x
Dos Reis, K., & Braund, M. (2019). Are school-based mentors adequately equipped to fulfill their roles? A case study in learning to teach accounting. Africa Education Review, 16(4), 17–36. doi:10.1080/18146627.2018.1460210
Ellis, N. J., Alonzo, D., & Nguyen, H. T. M. (2020). Elements of a quality pre-service teacher mentor: A literature review, Teaching and Teacher Education, 92, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2020.103072
Ekiz, D. (2006). Mentoring primary school student teachers in Turkey: Seeing it from the perspectives of student teachers and mentors. International Education Journal, 7(7), 924-934.
Farrell, T. S. C. (Ed.). (2008). Novice language teachers: Insights and perspectives for the first year. London, UK: Equinox.
Gareis, C.R., & Grant, L.W. (2014). The efficacy of training cooperating teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 39, 77-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2013.12.007
Gürsoy, E., Bulunuz, N., Baltaci Göktalay, Ş., Bulunuz, M., Kesner, J., & Salihoglu, U. M. (2013). Clinical supervision model to improve supervisory skills of cooperating teachers and university supervisors during teaching practice. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 1, 191-203.
Hamilton, J. (2010). Cooperating teachers: An investigation into their needs and training as mentors and supervisors of student teachers [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of San Francisco.
HEC [The Council of Higher Education]. (2007). Ogretmen yetistirme el kitabı. [Manual for teacher training]. Ankara: YOK.
HEC [The Council of Higher Education]. (2018). İngilizce Öğretmenliği Lisans Programı. [English Language Teaching Undergraduate Program]. Ankara: YOK.
Hobson, A. J. (2002). Student teachers’ perceptions of school-based mentoring in Initial Teacher Training (ITT). Mentoring and Tutoring, 10(1), 5-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611260220133117
Hobson, L.D., Harris, D., Buckner-Manley, K., & Smith, P. (2012). The importance of mentoring novice and pre-service teachers: findings from a HBCU student teaching program. Educational Foundations, Summer-Fall, 67-80.
Hudson, P. (2013). Mentoring as a professional development: “growth for both” mentor and mentee. Professional Development in Education, 39(5), 771–783. https://doi.org/10.1080/19415257.2012.749415
Inal, S., Kaçar, I.G., & Büyükyavuz, O. (2014, May 15-17). Inner voices of mentors and mentees heard and a blueprint for practicum produced [Paper presentation]. 8th International ELT Research Conference: Innovative Approaches to research in ELT, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey.
Kasapoğlu, K. (2015). A review of studies on school experience and practice teaching in Turkey. Hacettepe University Journal of Education Faculty, 30(1), 147-162.
Kincheloe, J. L. (2005). Critical constructivism primer. New York: Peter Lang.
Koç, E. M. (2008). An investigation of cooperating teachers’ roles as mentors during the teaching practicum at distance B.A. program in ELT at Anadolu University Open Education Faculty [Unpublished doctoral dissertation], Anadolu University.
Menegat, G.M. (2010). Mentor/protégé interactions and the role of mentor training within a novice teacher mentoring program [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Lewis & Clark College, Oregon.
Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2015). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation (4th ed.). San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.
Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana J. (2013). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Örsdemir Panpallı, E. (2016). Becoming a mentor: An action research on enhancing an EFL teacher’s mentoring skills in Turkey [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Çukurova University.
Öztürk, G., & Aydın, B. (2019). English language teacher education in Turkey: Why do we fail and what policy reforms are needed?. Anadolu Journal of Educational Sciences International, 9(1), 181–213. doi:10.18039/ajesi.520842
Pungur, L. (2007). Mentoring as the key to a successful student teaching practicum: a comparative analysis. In T. Townsend and R. Bates (eds.), Handbook of teacher education, 267–282. Netherlands: Springer.
Roberts, J. (2016). Language Teacher Education. NY: Routledge.
Sağlam, G. (2007). Perceived roles, responsibilities and challenges of CT’s in the procedure of teaching practice course in practicum [Unpublished PhD Thesis]. Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action, New York: Basic Books.
Torrez, C. A. F., & Krebs, M. M. (2012). Expert voices: What cooperating teachers and teacher candidates say about quality student teaching placements and experiences? Action in Teacher Education, 34(5-6), 485–499. https://doi.org/10.1080/01626620.2012.729477
Vasutova, J., & Spilkova, V. (2011). Teacher education in Czech Republic In V. M.
Zuljan & J. Vogrinc (Ed.), European dimensions of teacher education: Similarities and differences (pp.193-225) Ljubljana & Kanj, Slovenia: Faculty of Education-The National School of Leadership and Education.
Wang, J., & Odell, S. J. (2002). Mentored learning to teach according to standards-based reform: A critical review. Review of Educational Research, 72, 481–546. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543072003481
Yavuz, A. (2011). The problematic context of mentoring: evidence from an English language teaching department at a Turkish university. European Journal of Teacher Education, 34(1), 43-59. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2010.516431
Yeşilyurt, E., & Semerci, Ç. (2012). The problems that teacher candidates encounter during teaching practice curriculum and solutions offered. International Journal of Human Sciences, 9(2), 475-499.
Yıldırım, R., & Orsdemir, E. (2014). Mentoring practices in the practicum: Voices of ELT student teachers [Paper presentation]. Innovations in Pre-service Education: The teaching practicum. Ankara, Turkey.