Volume 12 Issue 2 (2023)

How Psychological Empowerment Influences Faculty Members' Change Orientation: Is There Knowledge Inertia's Mediating Role?

pp. 122-140  |  Published Online: May 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.122.8 (registering DOI)

Muslim Alanoglu, Songül Karabatak


Background/purpose – This study aims to determine the effect of the psychological empowerment of faculty members on their change orientation and the mediating role of knowledge inertia (learning and experience) in this effect.

Materials/methods – A cross-sectional research design was used to achieve this goal. The opinions of 398 faculty members working in six universities in Turkey were collected using a survey method.

Results – The results showed that the faculty members' psychological empowerment had a favorable effect on their levels of change orientation and a negative effect on their levels of learning inertia. Additionally, it was shown that the faculty members' psychological empowerment had little effect on their experiential inertia. Additionally, there was no discernible relationship between degrees of faculty members' change orientation and perceived knowledge inertia (learning and experience).

Conclusion – Results imply that faculty members who see their jobs as meaningful have sufficient knowledge about their jobs, are responsible for making decisions about their jobs, and accept change easily. It was also concluded that these faculty members have high levels of change orientation.

Keywords: psychological empowerment, change orientation, knowledge inertia, faculty member


Abbas, M., & Raja, U. (2015). Impact of psychological capital on innovative performance and job stress. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 32(2), 128-138.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cjas.1314

Aqeela, M.S.F., & Victor, L.D. (2017). Impact of knowledge inertia on organizational innovation (mediating role of organizational learning). Journal for Studies in Management and Planning, 3(2), 164-174.

Aksoy, I., & Tolay, E. (2019). The effects of psychological empowerment on susceptibility to change. Journal of Work Power, Industrial Relations and Human Resources, 21(2).

Altrichter, H. (2000). Introduction. In H. Altrichter, & J. Elliot (Eds.), Images of educational change ((pp. 1–10). Open University Press.

Baird, K., & Wang, H. (2010). Employee empowerment: Extent of adoption and influential factors. Personnel Review, 39(5), 574-599.


Bandura, A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4(3), 359-373.


Barblan, A. (2006). A new vision of higher education in Turkey. Sabancı University, Geneva, 1-13.

Bartram, T., & Casimir, G. (2007). The relationship between leadership and follower in-role performance and satisfaction with the leader. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 28(1), 4-19. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730710718218

Berraies, S., Chaher, M., & Benyahia, K. (2014). Employee empowerment and its importance for trust, innovation and organizational performance. Business Management and Strategy, 5(2), 82-103. https://doi.org/10.5296/bms.v5i2.6558

Beycioglu, K., & Aslan, M. (2010). Change and innovation as main dynamics in school development: Administrators and teachers’ roles. Yüzüncü Yıl University Journal o f the Faculty o f Education, 7(1), 153-173.

Boyce, J., & Bowers, A.J. (2018). Different levels of leadership for learning: Investigating differences between teachers individually and collectively using multilevel factor analysis of the 2011–2012 Schools and Staffing Survey. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 21(2), 197–225.


Cunningham, G.B. (2006). The relationships among commitment to change, coping with change, and turnover intentions. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15(1), 29-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320500418766

Celik, K., & Gencer, M. (2019). The effect of teachers’ perceptions of organizational trust on their attitudes towards change. Trakya Journal of Education, 9(1), 108-124. https://doi.org/10.24315/tred.454523

CoHE (2021). Higher education information management system. https://istatistik.yok.gov.tr/

Darling-Hammond, L., Wei, R.C, Andree, A, Richardson, N., & Orphanos, S. (2009). Professional learning in the learning profession: A status report on teacher development in the United States and abroad. National Staff Development Council.

Demirtas, H. (2012). Primary schools’ openness to change. Elementary Educ. Online 77(1), 18-34.

Doll, W.J., Deng, X., & Metts, G.A. (2005). User empowerment in virtual knowledge work. Workshop Papers. The University of Toledo.

Eroglu, S.G., & Alga, E. (2019). The relationship between openness to organizational change and organizational inertia of university employees. Atatürk University Journal of Graduate School of Social Sciences, 23(3), 1251-1271. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ataunisosbil/issue/49603/589742

Fang, C.H., Chang, S.T., & Chen, G.L. (2011). Organizational learning capability and organizational innovation: The moderating role of knowledge inertia. African Journal of Business Management, 5(5), 1864-1870.

Feiz, D., Dehghani Soltani, M., & Farsizadeh, H. (2019). The effect of knowledge sharing on the psychological empowerment in higher education mediated by organizational memory. Studies in Higher Education, 44(1), 3-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2017.1328595

Fırın, S. (2021). Psychological empowerment, innovative behavior, and personality traits. Iksad.

Foss, N.J. (2011). Why micro-foundations for resource-based theory are needed and what they may look like. Journal of Management, 37(5), 1413-1428. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206310390

Fraenkel, J.R., & Wallen, N.E. (2006). How to design and evaluate research in education. McGaw-Hill International.

Fritz, M.S., & MacKinnon D.P. (2007). Required sample size to detect the mediated effect. Psychological Science, 18(3), 233-239. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01882.x

Gomez, C., & Rosen, B. (2001). The leader-member exchange as a link between managerial trust and employee empowerment. Group & Organization Management, 26(1), 53-69. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601101261004

Housewright, R., & Schonfeld, R. (2008). Ithaka’s 2006 studies of key stakeholders in the digital transformation of higher education. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/5r5wb6.

Hu, L.T., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55.


Huang, Y., Liu, H., & Huang, L. (2020). How transformational and contingent reward leaderships influence university faculty's organizational commitment: The mediating effect of psychological empowerment. Studies in Higher Education, https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2020.1723534

Ahmad, H. (2012). Mission of public education in Malaysia: The challenge of transformation. University of Malaya Press.

Idris, A., See, D., & Coughlan, P. (2018). Employee empowerment and job satisfaction in urban Malaysia: Connecting the dots with context and organizational change management. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 31(3), 697-711. https://doi.org/10.1108/JOCM-04-2017-0155

Jafari, V., Moradi, M.A., & Ahanchi, M. (2013). An examination of the relationship between empowerment and organizational commitment (case study Kurdistan province electric staff). Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(12), 860-868. https://journal-archieves31.webs.com/860-868.pdf

Kareem, O., & Kin, T.M. (2018). Attitudes toward change: A comparison between senior assistants and teachers in Malaysian secondary schools. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(1), 249-265. http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3806

Kearney, S., & Smith P.A. (2008). A theoretical and empirical analysis of change orientations in schools. In Wayne K. Hoy, & Michael DiPaola (Eds.), Studies in school improvement (pp. 23-43). Information Age.

Klagge, J. (1998). The empowerment squeeze-views from the middle management position. Journal of Management Development, 17(8), 548-558.


Kline, R.B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford Press.

Liao, S.H. (2002). Problem solving and knowledge inertia. Expert Systems with Applications,     22, 21-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0957-4174(01)00046-X

Liao, S., Chang, Cheng, J.S., & Kuo, C. (2004). Employee relationship and knowledge sharing: A case study of a Taiwanese finance and securities firm. Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 2(1), 24-34. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.kmrp.8500016

Liao, S.H., Fei, W.C., & Liu, C.T. (2008). Relationships between knowledge inertia, organizational learning and organization innovation. Technovation, 28(4), 183-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2007.11.005

Liden, R.C., Wayne, S.J., & Sparrow, R.T. (2000). An examination of the mediating role of psychological empowerment on the relations between the job, interpersonal relationships, and work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(3), 407-416. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.3.407

Madhavan, N. (2014). Employees empowerment towards innovation. Reviews of Literature, 2(2), 1-6.

Mathieu, J.M., Gilson, L.L., & Ruddy, T.M. (2006). Empowerment and team effectiveness: An empirical test of an integrated model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), 97-108. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.1.97

Menon, S.T. (2001). Employee empowerment: An integrative psychological approach. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50, 153-180.


Michael, L.A.H., Hou, S.T, & Fan, H.L. (2011). Creative self-efficacy and innovative behavior in a service setting: Optimism as a moderator. Journal of Creative Behavior, 45,258-272. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2011.tb01430.x

Nikpour, A. (2018). Psychological empowerment and organizational innovation: Mediating role of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 7, 106-119. https://doi.org/10.33844/ijol.2018.60421

Oreg, S. (2003). Resistance to change: Developing an individual differences measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 587-604. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.4.680

Oreg, S. (2006). Personality, context, and resistance to organizational change. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15(1), 73- 101. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320500451247

Oreg, S., & Goldenberg, J. (2015). Resistance to innovation: Its sources and manifestations. University of Chicago Press.

Omur, Y.E., & Sezgin-Nartgun, S. (2014). Faculty change orientation scale: Adaptation to Turkish language, validity and reliability. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 20(3), 307-326. https://doi.org/10.14527/kuey.2014.013

Ozgenel, M., & Cetin, M. (2021). Effects of organizational cynicism occupational commitment and organizational dissent on knowledge inertia. Kalem Internatıonal Journal of Educatıon and Human Scıences, 11(2), 365-389.


Poole, D. (2005). The possibilities of university transformation. In R. Nata (Ed.), Issues in higher education (pp. 195–216). Nova Science.

Preacher, K.J., & Hayes, A.F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing ındirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879-891. https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.3.879 3 40

Priyatama, Y., Nurdin, F.S., & Fahmi, I. (2022). Psychological empowerment on ınnovative behavior with transformational leadership style as moderator variable. IJIP: Indonesian Journal of Islamic Psychology, 4(2), 58-66.


Sastry, A. (2001). Understanding dynamic complexity in organizational evolution: A system dynamics approach. In A. Lomi, and E.R. Larsen (Eds.), Dynamics of Organizations (pp. 377-404). AAAI/MIT-Press.

Schein, E.H. (1990). Organizational culture. American Psychologist, 45(2), 109-19. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.2.109

Sekman, M., & Utku, A. (2008). Agile companies: overcoming corporate inertia. Alfa Publishing.

Shah, T.A., Khattak, M.N., Zolin, R., & Shah, S.Z.A. (2019). Psychological empowerment and employee attitudinal outcomes. Management Research Review, 42(7). https://doi.org/10.1108/mrr-05-2018-0194 

Shalikar, S., Lahoutpour, N., & Rahman, A.B.A. (2011). The study on the impact of knowledge inertia on organization. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(10), 1207-1213.

Siemens, G., & Matheos, K. (2010). Systemic changes in higher education. Technology and Social Media in Education, 16(1), 3-19. https://doi.org/10.37119/ojs2010.v16i1.42

Soysal, A. (2010). Inertia: An analysis at the personal and organizational level for effective management. Journal of Cement Employer, 24(3), 16-26.


Spreitzer, G.M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal 38(5), 1442-1465. https://doi.org/10.2307/256865

Spreitzer, G.M. (2008). Taking stock: A review of more than twenty years of research on 9 empowerment at work. In J. Barling, & C. Cooper (Eds.), The sage handbook of organisational behaviour (pp. 54-73). Sage.

Suherman, E., & Rismayadi, B. (2022, December). Mediating effect of psychology empowerment on the ınfluence of knowledge sharing to lecturer performance: an empirical study in ubp karawang. In 19th International Symposium on Management (INSYMA 2022) (pp. 445-452). Atlantis Press.

Surgevil, O., Tolay, E., & Topoyan, M. (2013). The validity and reliability analysis of structural empowerment and psychological empowerment scales. Journal of Yasar University, 8, 5371-5391. https://doi.org/10.22521/unibulletin.2017.61.10

Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics. Pearson.

Tekin, İ. Ç., & Akgemci, T. (2019). The effect of psychological empowerment on ınnovative work behavior. Journal of Business Research-Turk, 11(3), 1674-1692.


Thomas, K.W., & Velthouse, B.A. (1990). Cognitive elements of empowerment: An “interpretive” model of intrinsic task motivation. Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 666-681. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1990.4310926

Tushman, M.L., & Romanelli, E. (1985). Organizational evolution: A metamorphosis model of convergence and reorientation. Research in Organizational Behavior, 7, 171–222.

Turkan, A., & Esmer, Y. (2019). A theoretical overview to the concept of organizational inertia. Journal of Strategic and Social Researches, 3(3), 525-534. https://doi.org/10.24205/03276716.2020.1011

Xiaorong, F., Rui, L., & Jing, P. (2019). Influence of channel learning on innovation ability from the perspective of organizational inertia. Science Research Management, 40(1), 76. http://journal26.magtechjournal.com/Jwk3_kygl/EN/Y2019/V40/I1/76

Whetten, D.A., & Cameron, K.S. (2015). Developing management skills. Pearson.

Vrabcová, D. (2015). Teachers´ and teacher educators 'attitudes to educational changes: An insight to the Czech educational system. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 171, 472-481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.149

Yalcin, C.I., & Senturk, F.K. (2019). Information inertia in organizations. Education Publishing.

Yuan, F., & Woodman, R.W. (2010). Innovative behavior in the workplace: The role of performance and image outcome expectations. Academy of Management Journal, 53(2), 323-342. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2010.49388995

Zantvoort, B. (2015). On inertia: Resistance to change in individuals, institutions and the development of knowledge. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy, 11(1), 342-361.



EDUPIJ Statistics from Scopus

CiteScore: 1.4, view Scopus page

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

► Educational Process: International Journal is member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). 

► New issue coming soon! (Volume 12 Issue 3, 2023)