Volume 8 Issue 1 (2019)

Interaction between Language Testing Research and Classroom Testing Practice

pp. 59-71  |  Published Online: March 2019  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2019.81.4

Ali Mansouri Nejad, Farhad Pakdel, Ali Akbar Khansir


The existing gap between research and practice in language testing has posed a huge challenge to language teachers. In particular, this study intended to examine language testing research and classroom testing activities for their degree of interaction from Iranian EFL teachers’ points of view. The analysis drew on the questionnaire developed by Nassaji (2012), which consists of quantitative and qualitative sections. The data were collected from 200 language institute teachers in Bushehr, Iran. The findings indicated that most of the teachers confirmed their familiarity with language testing research, while only a few believed that they were able to conduct or publish testing research. Although the participants acknowledged that the information gained from reading language testing could be valuable for their testing performances, they found their experience more relevant than knowledge gained from language testing research. This study also illustrated that there is a growing consensus among teachers in that there should be collaboration between researchers and teachers in testing practices.

Keywords: language testing research, EFL teachers, classroom testing practice, teachers’ perceptions, research and practice


Attali, Y., Lewis W., & Steier, M. (2013). Scoring with the computer: Alternative procedures for improving the reliability of holistic essay scoring. Language Testing , 30(1), 125-141.

Bartels, N. (2003). How teachers and researchers read academic articles. Teaching and Teacher Education, 19(7), 737-753.

Bassey, M. (2001). A Solution to the Problem of Generalization in Educational Research: Fuzzy Prediction. Oxford Review of Education, 27(1), 5-22.

Blank, R. F., & de las Alas, N. (2009). Effects of teacher professional development on gains in student achievement: How meta-analysis provides scientific evidence useful to education leaders. Washington D. C.: The Council of Chief State School Officers.

Burns, A. (1999). Collaborative action research for English language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cambone, J. (1995). Time for teachers in school restructuring. Teachers College Record, 96(3), 512-543.

Collinson, V., & Cook, T. F. (2001). I don’t have enough time: Teachers’ interpretations of time as a key to learning and school change. Journal of Educational Administration, 39(3), 266-281.

Crookes, G. (1997). SLA and language pedagogy: A socioeducational perspective. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19(1), 93-116.

Crookes, G., & Chandler, P. M.(2001). Introducing action research into the education of postsecondary foreign language teachers. Foreign Language Annals, 34(2), 131-140.

Daniel, L. G., & King, D. A. (1998). Knowledge and use of testing and measurement literacy of elementary and secondary teachers. The Journal of Educational Research, 91(6), 331-344.

Davies, A. (2011). Kane, validity and soundness. Language Testing, 29(1), 37-42.

Ellis, R. (1997). SLA research and language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2001). Second language acquisition: Research and language pedagogy. In C. Candlin & N. Mercer (Eds.), English language teaching in its social context (pp. 44-74). London: Routledge.

Gass, S. (1995). Learning and teaching: The necessary intersection. In F. Eckman, D. Highland, P. Lee, J. Mileham, & R., Weber (Eds.), Second language acquisition theory and pedagogy (pp. 3-20). Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hargreaves, A. (1990). Teachers’ work and the politics of time and space. Qualitative Studies in Educational and Psychological Measurement, 3(4), 303-320.

Hatch, E. (1978). Apply with caution. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 2(1), 123-143.

Heilbronn, R. (2001). The national teacher research panel: Teaching as evidence based practice. Prospero, 6(3-4), 70-77.

Heilbronn, R. (2008). Teacher education and the development of practical judgment. New York: Continuum.

Hine, G. S. C. (2013). The importance of action research in teacher education programs. Issues in Educational Research, 23(2), 151-163.

Kane, M. (2010). Validity and fairness. Language Testing, 27(2), 177-182.

Khansir, A. A. (2013). Applied Linguistics and English Language Teaching. Middle- East Journal of Scientific Research, 15(8), 1140-1146.

Khansir, A. A., & Gholami Dashti, J. (2014). The Effect of Question-Generation Strategy on Iranian EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension Development. English Language Teaching, 7(4), 38-45.

Lee, H., & Winke, P. (2012). The differences among three-, four-, and five-option-item formats in the context of a high-stakes English-language listening test. Language Testing, 30(1), 99-123.

Lightbown, P. (2000). Anniversary article: Classroom SLA research and second language teaching. Applied Linguistics, 21(4), 431-462.

McNamara, T. (2001). Language assessment as social practice: challenges for research. Language Testing, 18(4), 333-349.

Mills, G. E. (2011). Action research: A guide for the teacher researcher (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Nassaji, H. (2012). The relationship between SLA research and language pedagogy: Teachers’ Perspectives. Language Teaching Research, 16(3), 337-365.

Nunan, D. (1997). Developing standards for teacher–research in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 31(2), 365-367.

Pellicer-Sánchez, A., & Schmitt, N. (2012). Scoring Yes-No vocabulary tests: Reaction time vs. nonword approaches. Language Testing, 29(4), 489-509.

Pica, T. (2005). Second language acquisition research and applied linguistics. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 263-280). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Ross, S. (1998). Self-assessment in second language testing: a meta-analysis and analysis of experiential factors. Language Testing, 15(1), 1-20.

Stringer, E. T. (2008). Action research in education (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.

Tarone, E., Swain, M., & Fathman, A. (1976). Some limitations to the classroom applications of current second language acquisition research. TESOL Quarterly, 10(1), 19-32.

Tierney, R. D. (2006). Changing practices: influences on classroom assessment. Assessment in Education, 13(3), 239-264.

Xie, Q., & Andrews, S. (2012). Do test design and uses influence test preparation? Testing a model of wash back with Structural Equation Modeling. Language Testing, 30(1), 49-70.



EDUPIJ Statistics from Scopus

CiteScore: 1.8, view Scopus page

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

► Educational Process: International Journal is member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). 

► New issue coming soon! (Volume 12 Issue 4, 2023)