Volume 12 Issue 3 (2023)

A Conversation with ChatGPT about the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Education: Comparative Review Based on Human–AI Collaboration

pp. 7-25  |  Published Online: July 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.123.1

Turgut Karakose, Murat Demirkol, Nurcihan Aslan, Hüseyin Köse, Ramazan Yirci


Background/purpose – ChatGPT, an AI-powered chatbot designed with generative pre-trained transformer architecture, have intrigued millions of people from diverse backgrounds since its first release, and generated excitement with its groundbreaking performance in numerous use cases they have been tested. Its ability to generate coherent and contextually relevant responses across a wide range of topics have also attracted the attention of researchers, and several scholars have investigated the potential uses of this AI-based tool to promote scientific work. The current study was designed with a similar purpose, and aimed to conduct scientific research on the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on education with a collaborative analysis of human-artificial intelligence.

Materials/methods – The data were generated from simultaneous interviews with ChatGPT-3.5 and 4, and their responses were evaluated comparatively in terms of the accuracy, clarity, conciseness, and breadth of information provided for (1) the definition of the COVID-19 pandemic, (2) the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education, (3) the positive impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education, (4) recommendations to improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. We evaluated the responses using a trichotomous rating system, and also calculated Cohen’s kappa values to assess inter-rater agreements for each category of evaluation.

Results – The results indicated that both versions demonstrated a strong potential to generate accurate, clear and concise information with a satisfactory breadth. As can be expected, ChatGPT-4 provided more categorized and synthesized information, and was better at demonstrating critical reasoning.

Conclusion – These results indicate that ChatGPT is a promising tool that can support scientific research process in collaboration with human intelligence, and its newer versions could be developed in a way that these chatbots could be ethically and safely integrated into different stages of scientific work.

Keywords: ChatGPT, COVID-19 pandemic, artificial intelligence, global health crisis, education, chatbot, OpenAI


Educational Applications of the ChatGPT AI System: A Systematic Review Research

pp. 26-55  |  Published Online: July 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.123.2

Ziyaeddin Halid İpek, Ali İbrahim Can GÖZÜM, Stamatios Papadakis, Michail Kallogiannakis


Background/purpose – ChatGPT is an artificial intelligence program released in November 2022, but even now, many studies have expressed excitement or concern about its introduction into academia and education. While there are many questions to be asked, the current study reviews the literature in order to reveal the potential effects of ChatGPT on education as a whole. The potential implications, possibilities, and concerns about the use of ChatGPT in education are disclosed as mentioned in the literature.

Materials/methods – The data of the study were collected and then subjected to a systematic review. Research findings were analyzed according to the themes and categories identified.

Results – The results of this research were examined under themes according to the positive and negative aspects of ChatGPT. The positive categories and sub-categories of ChatGPT’s integration into education were determined, and the relationship between education and artificial intelligence determined. Similarly, the negative category highlighted the potential negative impact of artificial intelligence on educational processes.

Conclusion – The reviewed research evaluated and discussed the impact of AI on education and training processes. In conclusion, this review revealed the critical applications of ChatGPT for educational settings and the potential negative impact of its application. The findings established how ChatGPT and its derivatives would create a new paradigm in education as a whole.

Keywords: ChatGPT, education, systematic review, ChatGPT and education


Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Virtual Teaching During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction

pp. 56-78  |  Published Online: July 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.123.3

Sultoni, Imam Gunawan


Background/purpose – The rapid transition to virtual teaching (VT) due to COVID-19-related school closures posed challenges to teachers in regard to upholding the standards of their profession. Perceived transformational leadership of virtual teaching (perceived TL-VT) may have had a protective role in difficult circumstances. Hence, this research study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived TL-VT and organizational citizenship behavior of virtual teaching (OCB-VT) in Indonesia, with job satisfaction of virtual teaching (JS-VT) as a mediator.

Materials/methods – A cross-sectional survey design was used in this study, in which data were collected from a sample of teachers at 40 elementary schools in Blitar District, Indonesia. A total of 418 teachers with VT experience completed survey with items adapted from related scales. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. Moreover, the mediation effect was evaluated using Hayes Process of Model 4. Finally, Hayes (2013) bootstrap technique was used to investigate the significance of the mediation effect.

Results – Perceived TL-VT and JS-VT were found to be positively associated with OCB-VT. Mediation tests confirmed the relationship between perceived TL-VT and OCB-VT was mediated by JS-VT. Moreover, bootstrap analysis showed that coworkers had the most significant mediating effect on the relationship between perceived TL-VT and OCB-VT, followed by promotion, supervision, and work, while the effect of pay was shown to be insignificant.

Conclusion – It was found that JS-VT had a mediating role in the relationship between perceived TL-VT and OCB-VT. Therefore, a good principal leadership could be critical to maintaining both teacher satisfaction and behavior during the COVID-19 crisis, regardless of teachers’ actual readiness to overcome barriers associated with virtual teaching.

Keywords: perceived transformational leadership, organizational citizenship behavior, job satisfaction, virtual teaching, Indonesian teachers.


The Use of Works of Musical Art in Preschool Education: A Slovak Perspective

pp. 79-102  |  Published Online: July 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.123.4

Ivana Rochovská, Eva Dolinská, Božena Švábová


Background/purpose – Musical art has great potential for developing a child’s personality. Research around the world confirms that the inclusion of musical art stimuli has a positive impact on preschool children and brings multiple benefits. However, it needs to be led by a teacher who is competent pedagogically, but who is also equally competent artistically. The aim of the research was to examine the use of works of musical art in preschool education in Slovakia from the perspective of preschool teachers.

Materials/methods – Questioning was used to meet the survey aim. The research tool was a questionnaire constructed by the authors. In total, 366 kindergarten teachers responded to the questionnaire. A quantitative research design was employed in the study.

Results – From the results of the research, it is possible to state that there is a higher than average level of the current status of musical art used in preschool education. The opportunities for kindergarten teachers to acquire knowledge of musical art in their preservice training or other forms of education were found to be below average. The attitude of kindergarten teachers towards musical art can also be described as below average. Opportunities to gain expertise in musical art were shown to statistically, significantly, and positively predict kindergarten teachers’ attitudes toward musical art. It was also confirmed that the kindergarten teachers’ attitude towards musical art statistically, significantly, and positively predicts the use of works of musical art in preschool education.

Conclusion – The research findings point to the need to increase opportunities for kindergarten teachers to acquire professional knowledge in musical art. The results of the research may be a stimulus for further research, such as analysis of preschool teachers’ responses in terms of their age and pedagogical practice in order to estimate the development of the current state of using works of musical art in preschool education.

Keywords: music, musical art, preschool education, kindergarten.


Studying in Shanghai and its impacts on Thai International Students’ Opinions towards the Chinese People and China

pp. 103-125  |  Published Online: July 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.123.5

Yi Lin, Worapinya Kingminghae


Background/purpose – The extent and mechanisms through which studying abroad influences international students’ opinions towards the host country and its people remain a relatively understudied area. Drawing upon intergroup contact theory and Bourdieu’s concept of “habitus,” this study aims to fill this gap by examining the impact of studying in Shanghai on the opinions of Thai tertiary-level students towards China and the Chinese people.

Materials/methods – This study employed a counterfactual method to assess the influence of studying in China on the attitude change of Thai students. To evaluate this impact, two pre-pandemic samples were collected, one from Thailand and the other from China.

Results – The double-robust IPWRA estimator used in the study found that direct experience with the Chinese people and China’s development in Shanghai significantly improved the Thai students’ attitudes towards China and the Chinese people by around 20%. Moreover, individuals whose fathers were involved in business or regularly navigate market risks and opportunities exhibited a higher sensitivity to changes in their opinions towards China. However, individuals whose fathers possess cultural capital and had stable employment demonstrated a heightened sensitivity to changes in their attitudes towards the Chinese people.

Conclusion – Both intergroup contact conditions and students’ social origins were key factors that influenced nuanced attitude changes of international students towards their host country and its people.

Keywords: international student, intergroup contact, public diplomacy, overseas experience, attitude change.



► Journal Metrics

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  • Q2 (2023) CiteScore Best Quartile
  • 0.42 (2023) Scimago Journal & Country Rank (SJR)

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