Volume 9 Issue 3 (2020)

Editor's Note

pp. 137-138  |  Published Online: September 2020  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2020.93.1

Turgut Karakose


This current issue includes four articles that each represent particularly informative and interesting studies that we hope, as readers, you will also consider to be valuable publications. The first article, by Dr. Kieran James and his students at UWS, discusses the personal relationship (in the context of the ethical dilemma) between a student and their lecturer. In the second article, Dr. Hamide Gozu, Dr. Joan Newman, and Dr. Kimberly Colvin describe cultural differences in perceived parenting authority styles, and the links between perceived parenting authority styles, academic achievement, and self-esteem. In the third article, Dr. Shaista Noor, Dr. Filzah Md. Isa, and Dr. Faizan Farid Mazhar investigate the perceptions of teachers in Pakistan regarding their online teaching practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, in the fourth study of this current issue, Dr. Ahmet Sahbaz has aimed to reveal the views and evaluations of university students on distance education during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: Editorial, the current issue, authors, editor’s foreword, COVID-19


Critically Analysing the Ethical Dilemmas Arising from Lecturer and Student Relationships at the University: Pushing Social Boundaries for Institutional Revolution

pp. 139-152  |  Published Online: September 2020  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2020.93.2

Kieran James, Richie Bain, Norman Duncan, Michael Martin, James Mole, Michael Williamson, and Blair Wilson


The basis of the ethical dilemma discussed in this article is the controversy surrounding the personal relationship between a student and their lecturer. The social constructs of university highlight that the potential for any friendship or relationship within the institution is very uncommon and both parties usually assume that integration of their social groups cannot take place. Many people argue that the relationship of this nature can adversely affect grade attainment and fairness of judgement. We assess and reflect upon the merits of this conventional view by drawing upon a real-life case-study involving the first author (a lecturer) and the remaining six authors (his students). After considering the various arguments on both sides, and drawing upon authors such as Freud, Marx, and Sartre, we conclude that, if individuals remain honest, the relationship can only mean a greater understanding for the student and a lesser alienation complex for both parties.

Keywords: Academic freedom, academic ethics, alienation, COVID-19, existentialism, Freud, Sartre, Universities.


Maternal and Paternal Authority Styles and Developmental Outcomes: An Investigation of University Students in Turkey and the United States

pp. 153-168  |  Published Online: September 2020  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2020.93.3

Hamide Gozu, Joan Newman, and Kimberly Colvin


Using data from undergraduates in both Turkey and the United States, we examined cultural differences in the perceived parenting authority styles and the links between perceived parenting authority styles, academic achievement, and self-esteem. We also examined the separate contributions of fathers and mothers in each country. A total of 423 undergraduates (196 from Turkey and 227 from the US) completed the Buri Parent Authority Questionnaire to report on the parenting styles of their parents. They also reported on their own college GPA and completed the Rosenberg self-esteem measure. Some adjustment of the parenting scales was needed in order to achieve cross-cultural measurement invariance. Our study revealed that there were differences of parental style both between and within the two countries. Fathers were reported to be more authoritarian than mothers, and mothers to be more authoritative. Higher levels of authoritarian parenting by fathers was found in the American data. Some parental authority measures were associated with the students’ self-esteem, and all of these involved paternal authority. Paternal authoritarian parenting was negatively associated with the students’ self-esteem in the Turkish data, with paternal authoritative parenting positively associated with the self-esteem of the American students only. The study’s findings suggest that researchers should not ignore differences in parental authority style between mothers and fathers, nor differences between different countries. In particular, the role of fathers should not be overlooked.

Keywords: Parenting styles, cross-cultural, academic achievement, self-esteem, mother-father difference


Online Teaching Practices During the COVID-19 Pandemic

pp. 169-184  |  Published Online: September 2020  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2020.93.4

Shaista Noor, Filzah Md. Isa, and Faizan Farid Mazhar


The COVID-19 pandemic has had a remarkable economic impact worldwide, including in Pakistan, and was soon declared an international public health issue. The education sector in Pakistan, specifically school (K-12) education, has seen a staggering impact due to obstacles in delivering alternative forms of education during the pandemic. Educational institutions in Pakistan closed on March 13, 2020, and then, on April 13, 2020, the Ministry of Education, in collaboration with the Information and Broadcasting Ministry, announced the launch of a “tele-schooling” initiative. Teaching staff, who are arguably the most vital resource in any schooling system, faced considerable physical, mental, and financial challenges due to an overnight shift to an online mode of teaching, with issues concerning inadequate digital pedagogical knowledge and infrastructure limitations relating mostly to power connectivity. The current study investigated the perception of Pakistani school teachers regarding their online teaching practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the study, a qualitative research strategy was adopted, with semi-structured interviews conducted via Skype with 10 school teachers from Pakistan’s renowned Army Public School and College System (APSACS) schools located in the Rawalpindi and Islamabad regions of the country. Saldana’s (2016) structured inductive data analysis method was used in analyzing the collected data. The study’s results highlighted the issues and challenges confronted by school teachers in delivering online lessons via Google Classroom, Zoom, and Microsoft Teams such as high-cost Internet packages, uncooperative learners, low attendance of learners, teachers’ technology confidence, limited availability of educational resources, lack of ICT knowledge, and poor network infrastructure. However, the creativity, dedication, and community spirit which the school teachers demonstrated in working with very limited facilities were exemplary. Hence, based on the study’s findings, changes were proposed as a way forward. It is hoped that the study’s findings will help policymakers and the Ministry of Education in Pakistan to focus more on human capital development, interpersonal development, communication and technology management training, and support programs, especially for school teachers as the foundation of the next and future generations.

Keywords: COVID-19, online platform, learner, teacher, technology challenge, COVID-19 pandemic, Pakistan


Views and Evaluations of University Students about Distance Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic

pp. 185-198  |  Published Online: September 2020  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2020.93.5

Ahmet Sahbaz


In recent years, technological devices and the Internet have become an integral part of our lives, changing many of our habits and daily routines. This change became more rapid and intense during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic when countries compulsorily locked down their populations in an attempt to impede or halt the spread of the novel coronavirus. In order to continue their education, students stayed at home and were required instead to study online using a computer or a mobile device such as a smartphone. According to UNESCO (n.d.), “more than 1.5 billion students are or have been affected by school and university closures during this period.” As a result, distance education has become the “new normal” of the educational system. Prior to the pandemic, many studies had been conducted regarding the opinions and attitudes of university students toward distance education; however, publications on this subject since the beginning of the pandemic are still very new. Indeed, the current study aimed to reveal the views and evaluations of university students towards distance education since the beginning of the pandemic. This qualitative study was carried out at the Turcology Department of Tuzla University in the Bosnia Herzegovina Federation. A questionnaire comprised of 12 open-ended questions was used to collect the data, which was then analyzed using the conventional content analysis approach. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that almost 90% of the participants were against distance education, but firm supporters of face-to-face education.

Keywords: COVID-19, distance education, online education, face-to-face education, Turcology



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