Volume 10 Issue 4 (2021)

Preservice Teacher Perceptions of Virtual Reading Fieldwork During the COVID-19 Pandemic

pp. 7-19  |  Published Online: December 2021  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2021.104.1

Latasha Holt


Background/purpose – The COVID-19 pandemic created barriers for teacher preparation programs. Preservice teachers are typically assigned a host school and mentor where on-site, face-to-face classroom observation and teaching opportunities earn credit needed for graduation and to meet certain institutional accreditation requirements. Due to the potential for community spread of the COVID-19 virus, limited visitor numbers have been allowed into schools, and preservice teachers have largely been denied access.

Materials/methods – During the COVID-19 pandemic, the pressures to master in-class teaching assessments have been unprecedented. Using an exploratory model, preservice teacher perceptions of virtual reading assessments were collected during this unusual time in order to explore gaps in the literature. The study’s participants were from the southern United States, and were seeking a degree in Elementary Education during the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. The researcher created a survey which was shared across course sections. The collected data were then analyzed and sorted according to thematic findings.

Results – The findings revealed that unique challenges were faced by preservice teachers during participation in a semester long virtual fieldwork requirement as part of a course in “reading assessment.”

Conclusion – Building upon international research, the study shares challenges faced during virtual reading fieldwork unique to teacher preparation during a pandemic. A need was identified for a more streamlined process addressing technology pedagogy to prepare preservice teachers during times when face-to-face, in-person K-12 classroom meetings are restricted or unavailable.

Keywords: COVID-19, preservice teachers, reading, assessment, virtual fieldwork.


Examining the Problems Faced by Students with Special Needs in the Distance Education Process during the COVID-19 Pandemic

pp. 20-34  |  Published Online: December 2021  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2021.104.2

Nilüfer Yüksel, Ceren Çoban, Dila Nur Yazıcı


Background/purpose – In this study, we examined the problems faced by students with special needs in the distance education process in Turkey from the perspectives of their parents and teachers.

Materials/methods – We used case study in this research. Our study group consisted of seven parent-teacher pairs. We used a demographic information form and standardized interview forms. Our analysis technique was content analysis.

Results – From the standardized interviews, it was determined that the developmental problems observed by parents and teachers in children were in the areas of academic, socioemotional, and language development. In contrast, instructional problems were generally related to class participation.

Conclusion – As a result of the research, we have seen that children with special needs face problems in their academic, social skills, and language development. It was determined that inclusive students experienced difficulties in their usage of technology, participating in online classes, and maintaining their attention.

Keywords: COVID-19, child development, distance education, students with special needs, inclusion, primary school.


Enhancing Commitment to Teaching Entrepreneurship through Mindfulness and Readiness for Change in Higher Education Institutions

pp. 35-54  |  Published Online: December 2021  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2021.104.3

Sock Beei Yeap, Lei Mee Thien


Background/purpose – Research on teaching entrepreneurship which concentrates on the lecturers’ perspective has been underexplored. This study aims to report on an explanatory sequential mixed-methods study that was conducted with a quantitative survey of the influence of mindfulness on Malaysian polytechnic lecturers’ commitment to teaching entrepreneurship through readiness for change as a mediator. It also aims to report on the qualitative reasons behind the quantitative results.

Materials/methods – Survey data were collected from 171 lecturers teaching entrepreneurship or subjects embedded with the elements of entrepreneurial skills. This explanatory sequential mixed-methods study employed Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling to analyze the quantitative data, followed by nine semi-structured interviews which were then thematically analysed.

Results – Findings revealed that mindfulness did not directly influence the commitment to teaching entrepreneurship. Nevertheless, readiness for change mediated the relationship between mindfulness and commitment to teaching entrepreneurship.

Conclusion – The qualitative interview data provided insight that lecturers’ working attitude is an important factor to enhancing the quality of teaching entrepreneurship. Implications and recommendations for future studies are also presented.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, mindfulness, partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), readiness for change, thematic analysis.


Examining the Influence of Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization among High School Adolescents—Associations with Gender and Grade Level

pp. 55-72  |  Published Online: December 2021  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2021.104.4

Ramazan Yirci, Turgut Karakose, Nedim Malkoc


Background/purpose – The present study examined adolescent students' cyberbullying behavior and being a victim of cyberbullying specifically exploring potential differences by gender and grade level.

Materials/methods – Based on a cross-sectional survey on 311 adolescent students continuing their high school education in secondary education institutions in Turkey, the study reported their findings as with differences between gender and grade level in cyberbullying and cyber victimization. The research data was obtained by using the Likert-type “Cyberbully/Cyber-victim Scale.” Together with statistics, t-test, ANOVA and Tukey’s b test were applied the analysis of the collected data.

Results – The study’s results suggest a significant difference in the level of students displaying cyberbullying behaviors and being exposed to them within virtual platforms with regards to the gender variable. Male students display cyberbullying behaviors and are also exposed to them in virtual platforms more than female students. In addition, the study’s results reveal that female students tend to rumor (gossip) more than male students on virtual platforms. There was also a significant difference in the level of participants performing and being exposed to cyberbullying behaviors on virtual platforms with regards to the grade level variable. According to the analyzed data, students from higher grade levels both perform cyberbullying behaviors more and are more frequently exposed to cyberbullying than students from lower grade levels. In other words, in higher grade levels, students’ performance of, and exposure levels to, cyberbullying was found to increase.

Conclusion – This study’s findings emphasize the importance of developing prevention and intervention strategies must be developed in order to fight cyberbullying in schools when investigating the level of high school adolescents’ bullying of their peers, and the level of those exposed to cyberbullying.

Keywords: Cyberbullying, cyber victimization, social media, adolescents, high school students, internet aggression.


A Qualitative Investigation of Team-Based Gamified Learning in an Online Environment

pp. 73-91  |  Published Online: December 2021  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2021.104.5

Yunjo An


Background/purpose – This study examined how team-based gamified learning influenced students’ attitudes towards the gamification of learning, online collaboration, and competition. Furthermore, the study explored what factors contributed to the students’ positive or negative experiences with gamified learning.

Materials/methods – Game elements used for the team-based gamified learning experience included challenges, points, peer feedback and voting (social influence), and inter-team competition. Qualitative data were collected from pre- and post-surveys and participants’ reflections.

Results – Overall, the gamified learning experience had a positive influence on the participants’ attitudes toward the gamification of learning. The major factors that contributed to the positive change included (1) fun and enjoyment, (2) motivation and engagement, (3) relevance, and (4) choice and freedom. Most participants reportedly enjoyed the online collaboration in the study. The major factors that contributed to the positive online collaboration experience were effective teamwork, benefits of collaboration, and game elements. While the majority of the participants found the inter-team competition to be fun, friendly, and motivating, a few did not enjoy the inter-team competition. Teamwork was a major factor that led to either a positive or negative team-based competition experience.

Conclusion – The findings of the study provide practical insight into what should be considered when designing and implementing team-based gamified learning in online environments.

Keywords: Competition, gamification, gamified learning, online collaboration, team-based gamification.


The Role of Empathic Tendency, Belief in Teaching Competency and Job Satisfaction in Predicting Attitudes towards the Teaching Profession in Primary and Secondary School Teachers

pp. 92-121  |  Published Online: December 2021  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2021.104.6

Öner Çelikkaleli, Ahmet Şadan Ökmen


Background/purpose – Attitude towards the teaching profession functions as an important factor in the successful continuation of the education and training process. In this context, the first aim of the study is to examine teachers’ attitudes towards teaching according to gender, education level, experience, and location of the school. Second, it is to reveal whether or not empathic tendency, teaching competence belief, and job satisfaction predict attitudes towards the teaching profession.

Materials/methods – In this research, correlational research model, which is one of the quantitative research methods, was used. For these purposes, data were collected from 316 teachers with an average age of 40.34 (SD = 3.15) years old, of which 189 are female (59.8%) and 127 (40.2%) male. The Attitude Scale towards Teaching Profession, Empathic Tendency Scale, Ohio Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Job Satisfaction Scale were used as the study’s data collection tools.

Results – According to the first findings obtained from the research, while teachers’ attitudes towards teaching did not differ according to gender, education level (primary/secondary school), or school location (urban or rural); they were found to differ according to their length of experience. Accordingly, the attitudes of teachers with a seniority of more than 20 years were shown to be more positive than those with less experience. Second, empathic tendency, belief in teaching self-efficacy, and also job satisfaction were found to positively and significantly predict attitude towards the teaching profession.

Conclusion – Within the framework of these findings, it can be said that gender, education level and school location are not determining variables in teachers' attitudes towards the teaching profession. On the other hand, it has been seen that work experience is important in the attitude towards the profession. Finally, it can be said that self-efficacy belief towards the teaching profession and job satisfaction are important variables in the attitude towards teaching. The obtained findings are then discussed, interpreted, and recommendations put forwards in light of the current literature.

Keywords: Attitude, self-efficacy, empathy, job satisfaction.



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