Volume 12 Issue 4 (2023)

How Can ChatGPT Facilitate Teaching and Learning: Implications for Contemporary Education

pp. 7-16  |  Published Online: November 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.124.1

Turgut Karakose and Tijen Tülübaş


Background/purpose – ChatGPT stands before educational professionals with all its benefits and pitfalls, urging them to maximize its benefits for all levels of education while consistently searching for ways to minimize its risks. In the same vein, it is gradually recognized as a promising tool to serve the needs of students in the contemporary and forthcoming society. To this end, the present paper seeks to accumulate the wealth of opportunities ChatGPT can offer for the benefit of learners and teachers while also arguing over some implications of this new technology for educational leaders and policy makers.  

Materials/methods – This is an argumentative writing based on a review of the literature on the potential benefits of ChatGPT for learning and teaching.

Practical implications – ChatGPT provides students with personalized learning environments, individualized tutoring/feedback, and a great bunch of learning materials.  When used with proper guidance and awareness, ChatGPT can facilitate the development of twenty-first century 4C skills (collaboration, communication, critical thinking, and creativity) as well as supporting students with disabilities or learning difficulties. ChatGPT can also help teachers enrich their instruction through providing them with creative ideas and solutions as well as helping them write lesson plans, develop presentations, reach content and materials tailored to their students’ needs. ChatGPT can also assist teachers while assessing student work or performance, preparing exams, or designing evaluation rubrics. Recent AI-based technologies such as ChatGPT require the combined efforts of educational leaders and policy makers to prepare a digital- friendly ecology in schools to maximize the benefits of such technologies.

Conclusion – ChatGPT offers many opportunities that could transform the goals, content, processes, and approaches of teaching in a way that caters for the needs of students as the citizens of the future society.

Keywords – ChatGPT, education, artificial intelligence, AI-based technologies, teaching, learning, chatbots

Keywords: ChatGPT, education, artificial intelligence, AI-based technologies, teaching, learning, chatbots


Adiguzel, T., Kaya, M. H., & Cansu, F. K. (2023). Revolutionizing education with AI: Exploring the transformative potential of ChatGPT. Contemporary Educational Technology, 15(3), ep429. https://doi.org/10.30935/cedtech/13152

Ağaoğlu, E., Altınkurt, Y., Yılmaz, K., & Karakose, T. (2012). Opinions of school administrators and teachers about proficiency of school administrators (In Kütahya). Education and Science, 37(164), 159-175.

Atlas, S. (2023, July 23). ChatGPT for higher education and professional development: A guide to conversational AI. https://digitalcommons.uri.edu/cba_facpubs/548

Bloom, B. S. (1984). The 2-sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13(6), 4-16. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X013006004

Bower, M. (2019). Technology-mediated learning theory. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(3), 1035-1048. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12771

Brown, T. B., Mann, B., Ryder, N., Subbiah, M., Kaplan, J., Dhariwal, P., Neelakantan, A., Shyam, P., Sastry, G., Askell, A., Agarwal, S., Herbert-Voss, A., Krueger, G., Henighan, T., Child, R., Ramesh, A., Ziegler, D. M., Wu, Jeffrey, Winter, C. …, & Amodei, D. (2020). Language models are few-shot learners. arXiv. https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.14165

Caldarini, G., Jaf, S., & McGarry, K. (2022). A literature survey of recent advances in Chatbots. Information, 13(1), 41. https://doi.org/10.3390/INFO13010041

Chen, Y., Jensen, S., Albert, L. J., Gupta, S., & Lee, T. (2023). Artificial intelligence (AI) student assistants in the classroom: Designing chatbots to support student success. Information Systems Frontiers, 25(1), 161-182. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10796-022-10291-4

Chiu, T. K. F., Moorhouse, B. L., Chai, C. S. &, Ismailov, M. (2023). Teacher support and student motivation to learn with Artificial Intelligence (AI) based chatbot. Interactive Learning Environments. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2023.2172044

Clarizia, F., Colace, F., Lombardi, M., Pascale, F., & Santaniello, D. (2018). Chatbot: An education support system for student. International symposium on cyberspace safety and security. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-01689-0_23

Cotton, D. R., Cotton, P. A., & Shipway, J. R. (2023). Chatting and cheating: Ensuring academic integrity in the era of ChatGPT. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2023.2190148  

Elbanna, S., & Armstrong, L. (2023). Exploring the integration of ChatGPT in education: adapting for the future. Management & Sustainability: An Arab Review. https://doi.org/10.1108/MSAR-03-2023-0016

Farrokhnia, M., Banihashem, S. K., Noroozi, O., & Wals, A. (2023). A SWOT analysis of ChatGPT: Implications for educational practice and research. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2023.2195846

Henriksen, D., Woo, L. J., & Mishra, P. (2023). Creative uses of ChatGPT for education: a conversation with Ethan Mollick. TechTrends, 67, 595–600. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-023-00862-w   

Herft, A. (2023, August 3). A teacher’s prompt guide to ChatGPT aligned with ’what works best’. https://drive.google.com/file/d/15qAxnUzOwAPwHzoaKBJd8FAgiOZYcIxq/view?fbclid=IwAR2fRdL5ggq4zU-81FiI8j4BAOp5HqWHC_Ecy2sqKk4EiWXL0FKa5GVz5dE&pli=1     https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2020.1801227

International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). (2023, March 8). Standards for educational leaders. https://www.iste.org/standards/istestandards-for-education-leaders

Jain, M., Kumar, P., Bhansali, I., Liao, Q., Truong, K., & Patel, S. (2018). FarmChat: A conversational agent to answer farmer queries. Proceedings of ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies, 2(4), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1145/3287048  

Jeon, J., & Lee, S. (2023). Large language models in education: A focus on the complementary relationship between human teachers and ChatGPT. Education and Information Technologies, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-023-11834-1

Karakose, T. (2023). The utility of ChatGPT in educational research—Potential opportunities and pitfalls. Educational Process International Journal, 12/2), 7-13. e– https://doi.org/10.22521/edupij.2023.122.1

Karakose, T., & Tülübaş, T. (2023). Digital leadership and sustainable school improvement—A conceptual analysis and implications for future research. Educational Process International Journal, 12(1), 7-18. https://doi.org/10.22521/edupij.2023.121.1

Karakose, T., Demirkol, M., Aslan, N., Köse, H., & Yirci, R. (2023a). A conversation with ChatGPT about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education: a comparative review based on human–AI collaboration. Educational Process: International Journal, 12(3), 7-25. doi:10.22521/edupij.2023.123.1

Karakose, T., Demirkol, M., Yirci, R., Polat, H., Ozdemir, T. Y., & Tülübaş, T. (2023b). A Conversation with ChatGPT about Digital Leadership and Technology Integration: Comparative Analysis Based on Human–AI Collaboration. Administrative Sciences, 13(7), 157. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13070157

Karakose, T., Kocabas, I., Yirci, R., Papadakis, S., Ozdemir, T. Y., & Demirkol, M. (2022). The development and evolution of digital leadership: A bibliometric mapping approach-based study. Sustainability, 14(23), 16171. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142316171

Karakose, T., Tülübaş, T., Papadakis, S., Yirci, R. (2023c). Evaluating the Intellectual Structure of the Knowledge Base on Transformational School Leadership: A Bibliometric and Science Mapping Analysis. Education Sciences, 13, 708. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13070708

Kasneci, E., Seßler, K., Küchemann, S., Bannert, M., Dementieva, D., Fischer, F., ... & Kasneci, G. (2023). ChatGPT for good? On opportunities and challenges of large language models for education. Learning and Individual Differences, 103, 102274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2023.102274

Kim, J., Merrill, K., Xu, K., & Sellnow, D. D. (2020). My teacher is a machine: Understanding students’ perceptions of AI teaching assistants in online education. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 36(20), 1902-1911.

Kranzberg, M. (1986). Technology and history: Kranzberg's laws. Technology and Culture, 27(3), 544-560. https://doi.org/10.2307/3105385

Limna, P., Jakwatanatham, S., Siripipattanakul, S., Kaewpuang, P., & Sriboonruang, P. (2022, March 14). A review of artificial intelligence (AI) in education during the digital era. Advance Knowledge for Executives, 1(1), 1-9. https://ssrn.com/abstract=4160798

Luo, W., He, H., Liu, j. Berson, I. R., Berson, M. J., Zhou, Y., & Li, H. (2023). Aladdin’s Genie or Pandora’s Box for early childhood education? experts chat on the roles, challenges, and developments of ChatGPT. Early Education and Development. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2023.2214181

Matthews, C. (2023, August 18). A brief history of tech skepticism. Strategy Business. https://www.strategy-business.com/article/A-brief-history-of-tech-skepticism

Mhlanga, D. (2023, July 28). Open AI in education, the responsible and ethical use of ChatGPT towards lifelong learning. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4354422

Mondal, H., Marndi, G., Behera, J. K., & Mondal, S. (2023). ChatGPT for teachers: Practical examples for utilizing artificial intelligence for educational purposes. Indian Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijves.ijves_37_23

Murad, I. A., Surameery, N. M. S., & Shakor, M. Y. (2023). Adopting ChatGPT to Enhance Educational Experiences. International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Engineering, 3(05), 20-25. https://doi.org/10.55529/ijitc.35.20.25

Opara, E., Theresa, A.M. -E., & Aduke, T. C. (2023). ChatGPT for teaching, learning and research: Prospects and challenges. Global Academic Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(2), 33–40. https://doi.org/10.36348/gajhss.2023.v05i02.001

Ouyang, F., Zheng, L., & Jiao, P. (2022). Artificial intelligence in online higher education: A systematic review of empirical research from 2011 to 2020. Education and Information Technologies, 27(6), 7893–7925. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-022-10925-9

Rahman, M. M., & Watanobe, Y. (2023). ChatGPT for education and research: Opportunities, threats, and strategies. Applied Sciences, 13(9), 5783. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13095783

Sobania, D., Briesch, M., Hanna, C., & Petke, J. (2023). An analysis of the automatic bug fixing performance of ChatGPT. arXiv. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2301.08653.

Sok, S., & Heng, K. (2023, August 20). ChatGPT for education and research: A review of benefits and risks. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4378735

Su, J., & Yang, W. (2023). Unlocking the power of ChatGPT: A framework for applying generative AI in education. ECNU Review of Education. https://doi.org/10.1177/20965311231168423

Times Higher Education. (2022, July 30). ChatGPT and the rise of AI writers: How should higher education respond?. https://www.timeshighereducation.com/campus/chatgptand-rise-ai-writers-how-should-higher-education-respond

Tlili, A., Shehata, B., Adarkwah, M. A., Bozkurt, A., Hickey, D. T., Huang, R., & Agyemang, B. (2023). What if the devil is my guardian angel: ChatGPT as a case study of using chatbots in education. Smart Learning Environments, 10(1), 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-023-00237-x

Tsai, Y. C. (2023). Empowering learner-centered instruction: integrating ChatGPT python Api and tinker learning for enhanced creativity and problem-solving skills. arXiv preprint. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2305.00821

Tülübaş, T., Karakose, T., Papadakis, S. (2023). A Holistic Investigation of the Relationship between Digital Addiction and Academic Achievement among Students. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 13, 2006–2034. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13100143

Tülübaş, T., Demirkol, M., Ozdemir, T. Y., Polat, H., Karakose, T., & Yirci, R. (2023). An interview with ChatGPT on emergency remote teaching: A comparative analysis based on human–AI collaboration. Educational Process International Journal, 12(2), 93-110. https://doi.org/10.22521/edupij.2023.122.6

Whalen, J., & Mouza, C. (2023, August 21). ChatGPT: Challenges, Opportunities, and Implications for Teacher Education. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 23(1), 1-23.  https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/222408/

Xiao, Z. (2023). Educational response in the era of ChatGPT: Prohibition or change. Geographical Research Bulletin, 2, 116-119. https://doi.org/10.50908/grb.2.0_116 

Yilmaz, R., & Yilmaz, F. G. K. (2023). Augmented intelligence in programming learning: Examining student views on the use of ChatGPT for programming learning. Computers in Human Behavior: Artificial Humans, 1(2), 100005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chbah.2023.100005

Zhai, X. (2023, August 20). ChatGPT and AI: The game changer for education. SSRN Electronic Journal https://ssrn.com/abstract=4389098

Zhai, X., Yin, Y., Pellegrino, J. W., Haudek, K. C., & Shi, L. (2020). Applying machine learning in science assessment: a systematic review. Studies in Science Education, 56(1), 111-151. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057267.2020.1735757  

Zhu, C., Sun, M., Luo, J., Li, T., & Wang, M. (2023). How to harness the potential of ChatGPT in education? Knowledge Management & ELearning, 15(2), 133–152. https://doi.org/10.34105/j.kmel.2023.15.008



EDUPIJ Statistics from Scopus

CiteScore: 1.8, view Scopus page

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

► Educational Process: International Journal is member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). 

► New issue coming soon! (Volume 13 Issue 1, 2024)