Coaching in an Educational Setting Utilizing “Techniques of Change”: Enhancing Engagement with Learning in a Post-16 Educational Setting
pp. 7-31 | Published Online: March 2019 | DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2019.81.1
The purpose of this study was to explore whether or not Techniques of Change associated with Neuro-linguistic Programming (NLP) could enhance engagement with learning for boys in the post-16 education setting. This was an action research case study that utilized a mixed methods approach. Participants were coached by a qualified NLP practitioner and used NLP workbooks to aid and enhance understanding of “Techniques of Change” associated with NLP. Participants also engaged with a pretest and posttest questionnaire and participated in semi-structured interviews. The study predominantly sits within the interpretivist paradigm. It is a single-site, multi-voice study. “Positions of Consensus” are presented in relation to Techniques of Change enhancing boys’ engagement with learning. The outcome of this research provides some speculative evidence that Techniques of Change can enhance engagement with learning for Year 13 males. This study provides educationalists, managers, teachers and parents with an opportunity to consider how a specific form of coaching may encourage enhanced engagement and enriched learning outcomes for boys in post-16 education. This, in turn, may lead to greater positivity in their specific educational context and broader social interactions.
Keywords: coaching and education, neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), techniques of change, post-16 education, ELP questionnaireReferences
Association for Coaching. (n.d.). Coaching Defined. Retrieved from www.associationforcoaching.com/page/CoachingDefined.
Atkins, L., & Wallace, S. (2012). Qualitative Research in Education. London: Sage Publications.
Balduf, M. (2009). Underachievement among college students. Journal of Advanced Academics, 20(2), 274-294.
Bandler, R., & Benson, K. (2016). Teaching Excellence: The Definitive Guide to NLP Teaching and Learning. Isle of Wight: Matrix Essential Training Alliance.
Bandler, R., & Grinder, J. (1975). The Structure of Magic I. Palo Alto, California: Science and Behaviour Books.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bartkowiak, J. (2011). Engaging NLP for Teens. London: MX Publishing.
Beecher, H. K. (1955). The powerful placebo. Journal of the American Medical Association, 159(17), 1602-1606.
Bellow, N. (2014). Neuro-Linguistic Programming: A Practical Guide to NLP. California: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Berg, A. M., & Eikeland, O. (Eds.) (2008). Action Research and Organisational Theory (Labour, education and Society series, Vol. 9), Oxford: Peter Lang Publications.
Beyerstein, B. L. (2001). Fringe psychotherapies: The public at risk. The Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine 5(2), 70-79.
Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J.-C. (1990). Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture. London: Sage Publications.
Brown, S. W., & Grant, A. M. (2010). From GROW to GROUP: theoretical issues and a practical model for group coaching in organisations. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 3(1), 30-45.
Cappella, E., Hamre, B. K., Kim, H. Y., Henry, D. B., Frazier, S. L., Atkins, M. S., & Schoenwald, S. K. (2012). Consultation and coaching in urban elementary schools: Results from a community mental health trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(4), 597-610.
Carey, J., Churches, R., Hutchinson, G., Jones, J., & Tosey, P. (2009). Neuro-linguistic programming and learning: teacher case studies on the impact of NLP in education. Reading: CfBT Education Trust.
Carr, W., & Kemmis, S. (1986). Becoming Critical. Education, Knowledge and Action research. Lewes: Falmer.
Churches, R., & Terry, R. (2007). NLP for Teachers: How to be a Highly Effective Teacher. London: Crown House Publishing.
Cohen, L., Mannion, L., & Morrison, K. (2017). Research methods in education (8th ed.). Abingdon: Routledge.
Cooper, H. A. (2016). Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis: A Step-By-Step Approach (Applied Social Research Methods) (5th ed.). London: Sage Publications.
Cox, E., Bachkirova, T., & Clutterbuck, D. (Eds.) (2014). The Complete Handbook of Coaching (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications.
De Haan, E., Culpin, V., & Curd, J. (2011). Executive coaching in practice: What determines helpfulness for clients of coaching? Personnel Review, 40(1), 24-44.
Diamantopoulos, G., Wooley, S. I., & Spann, M. (2008). A critical review of past research into the Neuro-linguistic Programming eye-accessing cues model. Current Research in NLP, 1, 8-22.
Dilts, R. B. (1990). Changing Belief Systems with NLP. Capitola, CA: Meta Publications.
Dweck, C. (2017). Mindset-Updated Edition: Changing the Way You Think to Fulfil Your Potential. New York: Ballantine Books.
Epstein, D., Elwood, J., Hey, V., & Maw, J. (1998). Failing Boys? Issues in Gender and Achievement. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Francis, B. (2005). Negotiating the dichotomy of boffin and Triad: British-Chinese pupils’ constructions of ‘laddism’. The Sociological Review, 53(3), 495-521.
Francis, B. (2010). Lads, lasses and New Labour: 14-16-year-old students’ responses to the ‘laddish behaviour and boys underachievement’ debate. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 20(3), 355-371.
Freeth, P. (2017). The NLP Master Practitioner Manual. Birmingham: CGW Publishing.
Garnell, S., & Burn, M. (2013). Coaching and Learning in Schools. London: Sage Publications.
Golby, M. (1994). Case Study as Educational Research. Educational Research Monograph Series. Exeter: University of Exeter.
Gorard, S., Rees, G., & Salisbury, J. (2001). Investigating the Pattern of Differential Achievement of Boys and Girls at School. British Educational Research Journal, 27(2), 125-139.
Gorby, C. (1937). Everyone gets a share of the profits. Factory Management and Maintenance, 95, 82-83.
Grant, A. (2015, February). Putting the psychology into coaching, and the coaching into psychology: Lessons from the road (less travelled). Paper presented at the 5th international congress of coaching psychology, San Diego, CA.
Grant, A. M., & Stober, D. R. (2006). Introduction. In D. R. Stober, & A. M. Grant (Eds.), Evidence-Based Coaching Handbook (pp. 1-14). New York: Wiley.
Gray, P. (2000). Education Coaching: Module 3 – Techniques for change. Diploma in Performance Coaching (Education). Newcastle: Newcastle College.
Grinder, J., & Bandler, R. (1976). The Structure of Magic II. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behaviour Books.
Grinder, M. (1991). Righting the Educational Conveyor Belt. California: Metamorphous Press.
Gross, R., & McIlveen, R. (2000). Perspectives in Psychology (Aspects of Psychology). Hove: Psychology Press.
Guest, G., MacQueen, K. M., & Namey, E. (2012). Applied Thematic Analysis. London: Sage.
Hakemulder, J. (2004). Foregrounding and its Effects on Readers ‘Perceptions’. Discourse Processes, 38(2) 193-218.
Hammersley, M., & Traianou, A. (2012). Ethics in Qualitative Research: Controversies and Contexts. London/ Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hayes, N. (2002). Psychology in Perspective (2nd ed.). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Heap, M. (1988), Neurolinguistic programming: An interim verdict. In M. Heap (Ed.), Hypnosis: Current Clinical, Experimental, and Forensic Practices (pp. 268-280). London: Croom Helm.
Hoobyar, T., & Dotz, T. (2013). NLP: The Essential Guide to Neuro-Linguistic Programming. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
Ives, Y. (2008). What is ‘Coaching’? An exploration of conflicting paradigms. International Journal of Evidence-based Coaching and Mentoring, 6(2), 100-113.
Jackson, P. (2004). Understanding the experience of experience: a practical model of reflective practice for Coaching. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 2(1), 57-67.
Jacobson, S. (2002). Meta-cation (Volume 1, 2, and 3). Cupertino, CA: Meta Publications.
Jadhav, C. (2018, March 2). GCSE 9 – 1 grades: a brief guide to parents. Retrieved from https://ofqual.blog.gov.uk/2018/03/02/gcse-9-to-1-grades-a-brief-guide-for-parents/.
Jarrett, C. (2016, July 29). 10 of the most widely believed myths in psychology. Retrieved from http://digest.bps.org.uk/2016/07/10-of-most-widely-believed-myths-in.html.
Kerr, I. (2010a). A review of the sixth form at South Dartmoor Community College. Ashburton: South Dartmoor Community College.
Kerr, I. (2010b). A review of the sixth form at South Dartmoor Community College: Conclusions Drawn. Ashburton: South Dartmoor Community College.
Kök. I. (2013). A study on the relationship between learners’ listening comprehension achievements and their Multiple Intelligence groups. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 89, 182-186.
Koshy, E., Koshy, V., & Waterman, H. (2011). Action Research in Healthcare. London: Sage Publications.
Kudliskis, V., & Burden, R. (2009), Applying ‘what works’ in psychology to enhancing examination success in schools: The potential contribution of NLP. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 4(3), 170–177.
Lofthouse, R., Leat, D., & Towler, C. (2010). Coaching for teaching and learning: a practical guide for schools. Coventry: National College for Leadership of Schools and Children’s Services.
Mac An Ghaill, M. (1994). The Making of Men: Masculinities, Sexualities and Schooling. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
McCartney, T., & McCartney, K. (2014). The NLP Practitioner: A Practitioners Toolkit. London: Lulu Publishing Services.
McDowell, I. (2003). Redundant masculinities? Employment change and white working class youth. London: Blackwell.
McGuinn, N. (2000). Electronic communication and underachieving boys: Some issues. English in Education, 34(1), 50-57.
McNiff, J. (1988). Action Research: Principles and Practice. London: Routledge.
Mills, M., & Keddie, A. (2010). Gender justice and education: constructions of boys within discourses of resentment, neo-liberalism and security. Educational Review, 62(4), 407-420.
Myhill, D. (2002). Bad boys and good girls? Patterns of interaction and response in whole class teaching. British Educational Research Journal, 28(3) 339-352.
Nieuwerburgh, C. (Ed.) (2012). Coaching in Education: Getting Better Results for Students, Educators and Parents. London: Karnac.
O’Connor, J. (2013). The NLP Workbook: A Practical Guide to Achieving the Results You Want. Newburyport, MA: Conari Press.
O’Connor, J., & Lages, A. (2004). Coaching with NLP: A Practical Guide to Getting the Best Out of Yourself and Others. London: Harper Collins.
O’Connor, J., & Seymour, J. (1995). Introducing Neuro-linguistic Programming (revised ed.). London: Thorsons.
Ofsted. (2010). South Dartmoor Community College Inspection Report. (338194). 26-27 May, 2010. London: Crown Publications.
Reis, S. M., & McCoach, D. B. (2000). The underachievement of gifted students: What do we know and where do we go? Gifted Child Quarterly, 44(3), 152-170.
Robbins, P. (2015). Peer Coaching to Enrich Professional Practice, School Culture and Student Learning. Alexandria, Virginia: ASCD.
Roberts, S. (2012). ‘I just got on with it’: the educational experiences of ordinary, yet overlooked, boys. British Journal of Sociology, 33(2) 203-221.
Robins, R. V. (2017). Impact through coaching: does the use of models limit connectedness in coaching? Journal of Work-Applied Management, 9(2), 120-128.
Rogers, C. (2004). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy. Minnesota: Richards Publishing.
Rosen, R. D. (1997). Pyschobabble: Fast Talk and Quick Cure in the Era of Feeling. New York: Athenaeum Books.
Saunders, M. N. K., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2015). Research Methods for Business Students (7th ed.). London: Pearson.
Schutz, A. (1972). The Phenomenology of the Social World. London: Heinemann.
Singer, M., & Lalich, J. (1996). Crazy Therapies: What Are They? Do They Work? New York: Jossey Bass.
Skinner, B. F. (1938). The Behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. New York: Appleton-Century.
Smith, M. W., & Wilhelm, J. D. (2002). Reading Don’t Fix No Chevys: Literacy in the Lives of Young Men. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
South Dartmoor Community College. (2014). Post-16 results updated 14 August 2014. Ashburton: South Dartmoor Community College.
Stahl, G. (2016). Identity, Neoliberalism and Aspiration: Educating white working-class boys. London: Routledge.
Stout-Rostron, S. (2014). Business Coaching International: Transforming Individuals and Organizations (Psychology, Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy) (2nd ed.) London: Routledge.
Titus, J. J. (2004). Boy trouble: Rhetorical framing of boys underachievement. Discourse: Studies in the cultural politics of education, 25(2), 145-169.
Wall, T. (2016). Author response: provocative education: from the Dalai Lama’s Cat® to Dismal Land®. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 35(6), 649-653.
Wall, T., & Perrin, D. (2015). Slavoj Žižek: A Žižekian Gaze at Education. London: Springer.
Whitehead, J. (1985). An analysis of an individual’s educational development: the basis for personally oriented action research. In M. Shipman (Ed.), Educational Research: Principles, Policies and Practices. Lewes: Falmer.
Whitmore, J. (2009). Coaching for performance: GROWing human potential and purpose: the principles and practice of coaching and leadership. People skills for professionals (4th ed.). Boston: Nicholas Brealey.
Whitmore, J. (2013). GROW grows up: from winning the game to pursuing transpersonal goals. In C. Kauffman, S. A. David, D. Clutterbuck, & D. Megginson (Eds.), Beyond goals: effective strategies for coaching and mentoring (pp. 245-260). Farnham, Surrey: Gower Publishing.
Willis, P. (1977). Learning to Labour. Aldershot: Saxon House.
Wilson, C. (2011). Best Practice in Performance Coaching. London: Kogan Page.
Yin, R. K. (1989) Case Study Research: Design and Method. London, Sage Publications.