Volume 13 Issue 2 (2024)

Will Artificial Intelligence (AI) Make the School Principal Redundant? A Preliminary Discussion and Future Prospects

pp. 7-14  |  Published Online: June 2024  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2024.132.1

Turgut Karakose


Background/purpose. Developments in the world of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is full steam ahead in the wake of the fourth industrial revolution. One of the hot discussions over the exponential advancement of AI has been whether this ability of machines to accomplish tasks that require human intelligence could take over the roles of humans in the workplace and make the human workforce redundant. The field of education was no exception since AI technologies have made significant inroads into the realm of education.

Materials/methods. Although the potential of AI to replace teachers with all the seismic shift it created in the teaching-learning processes has sparked passionate debates, arguments over the potential influence of AI on school principals is scarce. This paper is an attempt to start this debate by construing how recent developments in AI-based systems could impact the process of management in schools, with its outcomes for the role and the status of the school principal.

Practical implications. We argue that, in school management, the integration of AI can facilitate the efficiency of administrative roles such as keeping/analyzing student records, decision-making, planning, budgeting, and communicating with staff or parents while at the same time improving the learning environment. When automated systems support these routine administrative duties of school principals, it will free up valuable time to handle more critical issues that require a “human touch” such as leadership. However, we signify the complementary role of humans and AI, suggesting a more symbiotic relationship in which both human and AI could bring in their own strengths and overcome their limitations.

Conclusion. We suggest that principals will not become redundant but will be even more crucial actors in the creation of human-AI symbiosis by continuously updating their AI literacy, invoking the effective integration of AI into educational and managerial processes, and guiding the other stakeholders’ views and attitudes. However,  principals have to realize that different times require different approaches, and their roles as school managers and leaders need to evolve in line with the changing realities of the new age of AI.

Keywords: School principal, school management, principal leadership, artificial intelligence, AI


The Road Less Travelled: Examining Alternative Routes to Elementary Teacher Preparation in Mathematics

pp. 15-30  |  Published Online: June 2024  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2024.132.2

Kelly O. Byrd and Susan Ferguson


Background/purpose. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify strengths and deficits of alternative teacher certification programs, with particular emphasis on approaches to strengthening mathematical content knowledge and pedagogy.

Materials/methods. Six participants included both teacher candidates enrolled in internship in the alternative master’s elementary or early childhood program and recent graduates of the programs at a university in the southeast United States. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted via an online focus group to elicit conversation among the participants of their combined perceptions of program-level recommendations to better prepare them to teach elementary mathematics. Using inductive, open coding of the transcribed data, the researchers identified and ultimately agreed upon the emerging themes related to perceptions of preparation program components.

Results. Related to research question one, participants shared meaningful experiences related to the instructor modeling effective mathematics teaching practices that have impacted their own teaching. Related to research question two, five common themes, including recommendations for improvement, were revealed: Need for more preservice mathematics methods instruction and theory into practice; Preparedness for accommodating diverse needs; Analyzing student data to inform practice; Utilizing and securing available resources; and navigating curricular changes/district mandates.

Conclusion. Based on the results of the study, teacher candidates in the elementary and early childhood alternative master’s programs are in need additional content, pedagogy, and resources to effectively teach elementary mathematics.

Keywords: alternative certification, teacher preparation, elementary mathematics


Investigation of Preschoolers’ Mathematical Skills: A Systematic Literature Review

pp. 31-51  |  Published Online: June 2024  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2024.132.3

Antonia Petropoulou , Konstantinos Lavidas , Stamatis Papadakis


Background/purpose. Awareness of the mathematical skills and knowledge children possess in their early years is widely accepted. This includes various common positive aspects, not only for educators but also for researchers and policymakers. This study presents a systematic review conducted to meticulously identify empirical studies published in the Scopus-Index Journal database about the mathematical skills children aged 3 to 8 years old have mastered.

Materials/methods. This review followed the PRISMA guidelines and the research database comprised of Scopus-indexed journals. The technique followed used “keywords” and Boolean operators. The screening processes included reviewing abstracts, scanning complete texts of published articles, and rejecting those not meeting preset inclusion criteria. Moreover, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and papers not written in English were also excluded. Of the 801 studies initially identified, a total of 15 empirical studies were included in the systematic review.

Results. Children master various math skills from a very young age, mainly in “numbers and operations”, but face difficulties in skills related to “algebra” as well as “geometry and measurement”.  Additionally, several preschoolers’ characteristics help to explain the acquisition of these skills, with “age” being the primary factor.  Researchers use various research instruments and mainly conduct individual semi-structured interviews. Children’s geometry skills and knowledge appear to have been studied to a small extent. The areas of “measurement” and “data analysis and probability” were found to be under active investigation.

Conclusion. It is worth noting that not only does a noticeable research gap exist for the math domains of “measurement,” “geometry,” and “data analysis and probability”. Factors that seem to affect young children’s math skills, such as “gender”, “parents’ educational level”, and “attendance to a preparatory preschool” need further investigation. The implications of the current study’s results extend beyond academia, providing valuable insights that educators and policymakers can leverage to enhance the quality of mathematics education during the early years period.

Keywords: mathematics, 3-8 years, kindergarten, competencies, knowledge, NCTM standards


The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction Between Leadership and Organizational Performance and the Moderating Effect of Educational Context

pp. 52-71  |  Published Online: June 2024  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2024.132.4

Fahrettin Gılıç , Sedat Kanadlı , Yüksel Gündüz , Yusuf İnandı


Background/purpose. Leadership behaviors correlate with job satisfaction, which is supposed to have impact on overall organizational performance. This study aimed to establish a model to explain organizational performance by determining the relational effect size between transformational and transactional leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational performance, and to examine the moderating effect of educational context.

Materials/methods. Meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) technique was used to determine the effect size of the relationship between transformational and transactional leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational performance. The model-data fit of the models established between these variables was then examined. Correlation coefficients from 25 primary studies were combined according to the random effects model.

Results. Analysis showed that significant effect sizes (p < .05) were found between transformational and transactional leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational performance. The model constructed between these variables was found to have a good model-data fit. Transformational and transactional leadership affects employees’ job satisfaction, and job satisfaction affects their organizational performance. The primary findings of the study are that employee job satisfaction is a partial mediator of the indirect effect of transformational leadership on organizational performance, and that leadership context does not significantly moderate the effect between these variables.

Conclusion. Organizational leaders need to consider the job satisfaction level of their subordinates in order to enhance organizational performance.

Keywords: transformational leadership, transactional leadership, job satisfaction, organizational performance, MASEM, moderating effect


An Analysis of School-Based Management on Learning Achievement in Senegal Primary Education

pp. 72-89  |  Published Online: June 2024  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2024.132.5

Yudai Ishii and Keiichi Ogawa


Background/purpose. School-based management (SBM) has gained international attention for the promotion of student learning and educational development. Senegal is one of the initiatives of French-speaking African countries that adopted the move towards promoting SBM at the school level, but lacks substantial evidence of its effectiveness in enhancing educational quality. In addition, there has yet to be a clear consensus on the heterogeneity of SBM on learning achievement. This study aimed to examine the influences of SBM characteristics on learning achievement and investigate the relationship between them and students’ gender status in Senegal primary education.

Materials/methods. The study adapted the framework on what matters most in marginalized autonomy and school accountability for better education results. It linked autonomy and accountability, requiring parents and the community to participate in and trust the school. The study applied a multilevel regression model using the cross-sectional dataset of Program d’Analyse des Systemes Educatifs de la Confemen (PASEC) 2019 learning achievements survey.

Results. The study revealed that parental and community participation has a positive and statistically significant association with reading scores regardless of student gender. On the other hand, a positive correlation was found regarding information sharing with parents, and a negative correlation concerning school autonomy, but with no significant relationship to reading scores.

Conclusion. Participation from parents and the community can improve student learning and mitigate learning gaps in gender status. The findings of this study are expected to provide insight into narrowing the gap in student learning, especially for neighboring countries facing similar issues to Senegal

Keywords: School-based management, learning achievement, primary education, gender equality, Senegal


Game-Based Learning: Alternative Approaches to Teaching and Learning Strategies in Health Sciences Education

pp. 90-104  |  Published Online: June 2024  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2024.132.6

Zijing Hu


Background/purpose. Game-based learning has received increased attention in health sciences education in the global north due to its effectiveness in achieving learning outcomes. The literature concurs that learning outcomes can be improved through appropriate pedagogical approaches. However, more studies need to focus on game-based learning in the health sciences and higher education field in South Africa. This study aimed to explore acupuncture students’ lived experiences with game-based learning at an identified South African university.

Materials/methods. The research was grounded within the interpretivist paradigm, employing a qualitative approach, adopting a single-case study design.

Results. The findings of this study revealed that game-based learning positively promoted students’ learning experiences and their curriculum outcomes. However, the participants highlighted a few challenges, including a lack of feedback sessions, large student numbers but insufficient facilitators, and an absence of digital games in their university programs.

Conclusion. Game-based learning is associated with multiple advantages, including essential skills in the working world. These skills include teamwork, communication, and self-reflection. Although game-based learning is a practical approach to improving learning outcomes in health sciences education, there are still areas that need to be enhanced in order to promote its successful use. Future research can be conducted using different research designs.

Keywords: game-based learning, social constructivism theory, learning outcomes, higher education, acupuncture


Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Education: A Case Study on ChatGPT’s Influence on Student Learning Behaviors

pp. 105-121  |  Published Online: June 2024  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2024.132.7

Thuy Nhu Thi Nguyen , Nam Van Lai , Quyet Thi Nguyen


Background/purpose.  The integration of ChatGPT at Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education (HCMUTE) aims to transform teaching and learning dynamics. This research evaluates ChatGPT’s impact on student learning behaviors, exploring its potential to enhance educational outcomes while addressing ethical concerns.

Materials/methods. A mixed-methods approach was used, involving 73 first and second-year students from HCMUTE selected through stratified random sampling. Data were collected via electronic surveys and semi-structured interviews with 15 faculty members. Quantitative data were analyzed using IBM’s SPSS, while qualitative data were thematically analyzed.

Results. ChatGPT is widely adopted by students for learning and information searches, with many also finding it reliable for academic tasks such as idea generation and assignment completion. However, concerns about overreliance were noted, which may hinder independent thinking and critical evaluation skills. Issues related to academic dishonesty, reduced creativity, and ethical problems such as plagiarism and information security were also identified.

Conclusion. ChatGPT significantly impacts student learning behaviors. Whilst it offers benefits in accessibility and efficiency, its integration requires a balanced approach in order to maximize benefits whilst mitigating risks. This study highlights the need for stringent policies to ensure ethical usage and to promote independent learning. Future research should focus on the long-term impacts of AI tools on educational outcomes and ethical implementation frameworks.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, AI, ChatGPT, educational technology, higher education, student behavior


Fostering Diversity and Participation with School Gardens: Examining Possibilities and Challenges under Different National Educational Policies

pp. 122-138  |  Published Online: June 2024  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2024.132.8

Ana Eloisa Carvalho , Sara Blanc , Manuel Aguiar , Ana Cristina Torres


Background/purpose.  Despite progress in inclusive education policies, research has largely neglected the analysis of learning environments that are adjustable for all students. School gardens are learning environments that emphasize the broader view of participation on current perspectives of inclusion. This article discusses the possibilities and limitations of using school gardens in inclusive learning environments and their relations with different inclusive education national policies.

Materials/methods. We performed a content analysis of inclusive education national policies and 16 learning activities tested and implemented in four schools from Slovenia, Spain, Greece, and Portugal participating in an exchange project which promoted teaching with school gardens supported by digital tools.

Results. The study revealed illustrations of how activities that combine the use of school gardens with digital tools can emphasize collaboration and participation in inclusive learning approaches. However, fostering inclusive practices was found to be either constrained or promoted by each country’s view of inclusion in educational policies.

Conclusion. Integrating teacher collaboration and project-based learning with garden-based school activities fosters student collaboration and participation, while offering enriched sensorial experiences that benefit the learning and development of all students. School gardens also foster inclusion through deepening intercultural understanding and stronger student interactions that heighten awareness and normalization of diversity.

Keywords: educational policy, environmental education, inclusion, school gardens, sustainability



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